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High Resolution M-mode Evaluation of Jugular Vein Valves in Patients with Neurological and Neurosensory Disorders

[ Vol. 14 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Erica Menegatti*, Mirko Tessari, Maria Elena Vannini, Sergio Gianesini, Anna Maria Malagoni, Andrea Ciorba, Manuela Mazzoli, Francesco Sisini, Fabrizio Salvi, Stefano Pelucchi and Paolo Zamboni   Pages 316 - 322 ( 7 )

Abstract:


Background: High prevalence of valve absence was found in the internal jugular vein (IJV) of healthy volunteers by means of M-mode high-resolution Echo Colour Doppler (ECD). However, the prevalence of valve in neurovascular disorders linked to Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI) is still unknown.

Methods: A cohort of 83 Healthy Controls (HC), 71 Multiple Sclerosis (MS), 99 Inner Ear Disorders (IED) underwent ECD investigation of the IJV valve, including M-mode evaluation and related hemodynamics. The primary outcome measure was characterization of valve presence, morphology and motility, whereas the secondary outcome was the rate of flow alteration.

Results: Bilateral valve presence was found in 38% of HC, 58% of MS and 25% of IED, whereas, bilateral valve absence was recorded in 16% of HC, 10% of MS and 31% of IED (p<0.003). Bicuspid morphology was more prevalent in HC 56%, while monocusp was more prevalent in patients: 75% MS and 57% IED (p<0.0001). The main finding was the presence of mobile valve leaflets in 98% of HC, contrarily fixed valve leaflets were recorded in 82% of MS and in 41% of IED, p< 0.0001.

Finally, by stratifying the entire cohort according to the presence of mobile and not mobile valve leaflets, normal monodirectional and phasic flow were commonly found in the mobile leaflets subgroup, p<0.0001.

Conclusion: In patients with miscellaneous neurological disorders, a significant higher rate of defective valves was found with respect to HC. The latter condition is strongly associated to brain outflow abnormalities described in CCSVI condition.

Keywords:

Cerebral venous drainage, duplex ultrasound, m-mode, internal jugular vein valves, chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency, echo colour doppler.

Affiliation:

Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Specialty Surgery, Section of Otorinolaringology, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Specialty Surgery, Section of Otorinolaringology, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Center for Diagnosis and Cure of Rare Diseases, IRCCS Institute of Neurological Sciences, Bologna, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Specialty Surgery, Section of Otorinolaringology, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Vascular Diseases Center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara



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