Submit Manuscript  

Article Details


Pivotal Pathogenic and Biomarker Role of Chlamydia Pneumoniae in Neurovascular Diseases

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

Seidu A. Richard *   Pages 262 - 273 ( 12 )

Abstract:


Chlamydia Pneumoniae (C. Pn) is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that is associated with respiratory tract infections like pneumonia, pharyngitis and bronchitis. It has also been implicated in cerebrovascular (stroke) as well as cardiovascular diseases. The most possible pathway via which C. Pn elicits its pathogenesis could be via activation of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs) proliferation resulting in the stimulation of Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR-4) and/or phospho-44/42(p44/p42) Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPK). It is also established that tyrosine phosphorylation of IQ domain GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) also contributed to C. Pn infection-triggered Vascular Endothelial Cell (VEC) movements via the SRC tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2 (4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine) resulting in angiogenesis. It is also proven that restricted inflammatory cell infiltrates as well as apoptosis have been linked to C. Pn or C. Pn-specific proteins in atherosclerotic plaques of patients with stroke. It is further an evidence that C. Pn enters the cerebral vasculature during the initial infection and worsen atherosclerosis either directly or indirectly. Chronic, persistent C. Pn infection is also capable of triggering the secretion of Chlamydial Heat Shock Protein 60 (cHSP60) in the vessel wall resulting in augmentation of inflammation. C. Pn also aids in the activation of explicit cell-intermediated immunity within plaques. Macrophages in the carotid plaques co-exist with CD4+ lymphocytes which are capable of triggering the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in the augmentation of atherogenic development during C. Pn infection. C. Pn actively participated in the modification of both histones H3 and H4 during chromatin analysis via the interleukin 8(IL-8) gene facilitator as well as conscription of nuclear factor kappa-B(NF-κB) or NF- κB/p65 complex and polymerase II (Pol II). This review, therefore, focuses on the crucial involvement of C. Pn in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular events.

Keywords:

Chlamydia Pneumoniae (C. Pn), pneumonia, stroke, angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, neurovascular diseases.

Affiliation:

Department of Surgery, Volta Regional Hospital, P.O. Box MA-374, Ho



Read Full-Text article