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Sirtuins: Developing Innovative Treatments for Aged-Related Memory Loss and Alzheimer’s Disease

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Kenneth Maiese*   Pages 367 - 371 ( 5 )

Abstract:


The world’s population continues to age at a rapid pace. By the year 2050, individuals over the age of 65 will account for sixteen percent of the world’s population and life expectancy will increase well over eighty years of age. Accompanied by the aging of the global population is a significant rise in Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Neurodegenerative disorders will form a significant component for NCDs. Currently, dementia is the 7th leading cause of death and can be the result of multiple causes that include diabetes mellitus, vascular disease, and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). AD may represent at least sixty percent of these cases. Current treatment for these disorders is extremely limited to provide only some symptomatic relief at present. Sirtuins and in particular, the silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (SIRT1), represent innovative strategies for the treatment of cognitive loss. New work has revealed that SIRT1 provides protection against memory loss through mechanisms that involve oxidative stress, Aβ toxicity, neurofibrillary degeneration, vascular injury, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuronal loss. In addition, SIRT1 relies upon other avenues that can include trophic factors, such as erythropoietin, and signaling pathways, such as Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1/CCN4). Yet, SIRT1 can have detrimental effects as well that involve tumorigenesis and blockade of stem cell differentiation and maturation that can limit reparative processes for cognitive loss. Further investigations with sirtuins and SIRT1 should be able to capitalize upon these novel targets for dementia and cognitive loss.

Keywords:

Aging, aging-related disorders, alzheimer's disease, apoptosis, autophagy, CCN4, erythropoietin, diabetes mellitus, histone deacetylases, metabolism, oxidative stress, programmed cell death, stem cells, SIRT1, sirtuins, transcription factors, vascular disease, WISP1, Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1.

Affiliation:

Cellular and Molecular Signaling, Newark, New Jersey 07101



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