Pankaj Bhatia and Nirmal Singh * Pages 27 - 39 ( 13 )
Introduction: Cerebral hypoperfusion has been considered as major risk factor for Vascular Dementia (VaD). The present study shows the potential of Tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, in bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo) induced VaD in rats.
Materials and Methods: BCCAo procedure was performed under anesthesia in wistar rats to induce VaD. Morris Water-Maze (MWM) parameter was employed on 7th day post-surgery to determine learning and memory. Escape latency time, time spent in target quadrant, Path length and average swim speed taken as important parameters in MWM. Endothelial dysfunction was assessed in isolated aorta by observing endothelial dependent vasorelaxations and levels of serum nitrite. Various biochemical and histopathological estimations were also performed.
Results: BCCAo produced significant impairment in endothelium dependent vasorelaxation and a decrease in serum nitrite levels indicating endothelial dysfunction. Further poor performance on MWM represents impairment of learning and memory. There was a significant rise in brain oxidative stress level (indicated by increase in brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species and decrease in reduced glutathione levels). Increase in brain acetylcholinesterase activity; brain myloperoxidase activity and brain neutrophil infiltration (as marker of inflammation) were also observed. Treatment of Tadalafil (5 & 10 mg/kg, p. o.)/Donepezil (0. 5 mg/kg, i.p., serving as standard) ameliorated BCCAo induced endothelial dysfunction; memory deficits; biochemical and histopathological changes in a significant manner.
Conclusion: It may be concluded that Tadalafil has shown efficacy in rat model of BCCAo induced VaD and that phosphodiesterase-5 can be considered as an important therapeutic target for the treatment of VaD.
Phosphodieseterase-5, tadalafil, oxidative stress, memory, vascular dementia, cerebral hemodynamic.
CNS Research Lab., Pharmacology Division, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Faculty of Medicine, Punjabi University, Patiala - 147002, Punjab, CNS Research Lab., Pharmacology Division, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Faculty of Medicine, Punjabi University, Patiala - 147002, Punjab