Hanin A. AboTaleb* Pages 522 - 530 ( 9 )
Coronavirus is an enveloped, non-segmented, positive-polarity and single-stranded RNA virus. It has four types of genera that infect mammals and birds, with only alpha and beta types found to affect humans with varying severity. A specific clade of beta coronaviruses is reported as lethal zoonotic viruses and has created major epidemic troubles, starting with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002, then the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012, and lastly Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2019. However, many neurological complications reported in COVID-19 patients have highlighted a critical pattern of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Awareness of such an association could create new insight to consider neurological manifestations as a COVID-19 differential diagnosis during the pandemic period of COVID-19 to avoid delayed diagnosis and prevent further transmission.
This mini-review aims to collect the current knowledge regarding the mechanism behind the neuroinvasive capacity of SARS-CoV-2, to summarize the common documented neurological symptoms and associated complications in COVID-19 patients, and to review the impact of neurological manifestations on COVID-19 mortality.
COVID-19, coronavirus, neurology, headache, single-stranded RNA virus, neurological diseases.
Neuroscience Unit, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah