Pavan Thapak, Mahendra Bishnoi and Shyam S. Sharma* Pages 249 - 258 ( 10 )
Background: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting the central nervous system. A growing body of evidence has depicted that high glucose level leads to the activation of the transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels. However, there are no studies targeting TRPM2 channels in diabetes-induced cognitive decline using a pharmacological approach.
Objective: The present study intended to investigate the effects of 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a TRPM2 inhibitor, in diabetes-induced cognitive impairment.
Methods: Streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce diabetes in rats. Animals were randomly divided into the treatment group, model group and age-matched control and pre se group. 2-APB treatment was given for three weeks to the animals. After 10 days of behavioural treatment, parameters were performed. Animals were sacrificed at 10th week of diabetic induction and the hippocampus and cortex were isolated. After that, protein and mRNA expression study was performed in the hippocampus. Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity was done in the cortex.
Results: Our study showed the 10th week diabetic animals developed cognitive impairment, which was evident from the behavioural parameters. Diabetic animals depicted an increase in the TRPM2 mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus as well as increased AchE activity in the cortex. However, memory associated proteins were down-regulated, namely Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII-Thr286), glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β-Ser9), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB-Ser133), and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95). Gene expression of parvalbumin, calsequestrin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were down-regulated while mRNA level of calcineurin A/ protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha (PPP3CA) was upregulated in the hippocampus of diabetic animals. A three-week treatment with 2-APB significantly ameliorated the alteration in behavioural cognitive parameters in diabetic rats. Moreover, 2-APB also down-regulated the expression of TRPM2 mRNA and protein in the hippocampus as well as AchE activity in the cortex of diabetic animals as compared to diabetic animals. Moreover, the 2-APB treatment also upregulated the CaMKII (Thr-286), GSK-3β (Ser9), CREB (Ser133), and PSD-95 expression and mRNA levels of parvalbumin, calsequestrin, and BDNF while mRNA level of calcineurin A was down-regulated in the hippocampus of diabetic animals.
Conclusion: This study confirms the ameliorative effect of TRPM2 channel inhibitor in the diabetes- induced cognitive deficits. Inhibition of TRPM2 channels reduced the calcium associated downstream signaling and showed a neuroprotective effect of TRPM2 channels in diabetesinduced cognitive impairment.
TRPM2, metabolic disorder, behavioural treatment, neuroprotective effect, diabetes, neuropathy.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector 67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab, National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute, Sector 81, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector 67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab